Chemistry Hand Written Notes


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Unit I: Solid State

Classification of solids based on different binding forces: molecular, ionic, covalent and
metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea). Unit cell in two
dimensional and three dimensional lattices, calculation of density of unit cell, packing in
solids, packing efficiency, voids, number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell, point

Unit II: Solutions

Types of solutions, solubility of gases in liquids, solid solutions, colligative properties, relative
lowering of vapour pressure, Raoult’s law, elevation of boiling point, depression of freezing
point, osmotic pressure, determination of molecular masses using colligative properties,
Abnormal colligative properties (Preliminary idea only).

Unit III: Electrochemistry

Electrolytes and non-electrolyte conductor, conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific
and molar conductivity, variation of conductivity with concentration, Kohlrausch’s law,
electrolysis and laws of electrolysis (elementary idea), dry cell electrolytic cells and Galvanic
cells, EMF of a cell, standard electrode potential, Nernst equation and its application to
chemical cells, Relation between Gibbs energy change and emf of a cell.

Unit IV: Chemical Kinetics

Rate of a reaction (Average and instantaneous), factors affecting rate of reaction:
concentration, temperature, catalyst, order and molecularity of a reaction, rate law and
specific rate constant, integrated rate equations and half life (only for zero and first order
reactions), concept of collision theory (elementary idea, no mathematical treatment),
Activation energy, Arrhenius equation.

Unit V: Surface Chemistry

Adsorption – physisorption and chemisorption, factors affecting adsorption of gases on
solids, catalysts, colloidal state distinction between true solutions, colloids and suspension;
lyophilic, lyophobic, multimolecular and macromolecular colloids; properties of colloids;
Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis, coagulation, emulsion – types of

Unit VI: General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements

Principles and methods of extraction – concentration, oxidation, reduction – electrolytic
method and refining.

Unit VII: p – Block Elements

Group15 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, oxidation
states, trends in physical and chemical properties; nitrogen preparation properties & uses;
compounds of nitrogen, preparation and properties of ammonia, oxides of nitrogen
(Structure only); Phosphorus – allotropic forms.
Group 16 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states,
occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties, dioxygen: Preparation, Properties
and uses, classification of oxides, Ozone, Sulphur allotropic forms; compounds of sulphur:
Preparation properties and uses of sulphur dioxide, sulphuric acid, properties and uses;
oxoacids of sulphur (Structures only).
Group 17 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states,
occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; compounds of halogens, Preparation
properties and uses of chlorine and hydrochloric acid, interhalogen compounds, oxoacids of
halogens (structure only).

Group 18 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, trends in
physical and chemical properties, uses.

Unit VIII: d and f Block Elements

General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence and characteristics of transition
metals, general trends in properties of the first row transition metals – metallic character,
ionization enthalpy, oxidation states, ionic radii, colour, catalytic property, magnetic
properties, interstitial compounds, alloy formation.

Unit IX: Coordination Compounds

Coordination compounds – Introduction, ligands, coordination number, colour, magnetic
properties and shapes, IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds.
Bonding, Werner’s theory, VBT and CFT.

Unit X: Haloalkanes and Haloarenes

Haloalkanes: Nomenclature, nature of C-X bond, preparation from alcohols, halogenations
of alkanes, alkenes, Sandmeyer’s reaction, halogen exchange reaction, physical properties
and chemical properties, nucleophilic substitution reactions (unimolecular and bimolecular),
stereochemical effect of substitution reaction, elimination reaction, Electrophilic substitution
reactions (halogenations, nitration, sulphonation), Friedel-Crafts reaction, reaction with
metals (Wurtz Fittig and Fittig reaction), optical rotation.

Haloarenes: Nature of C – X bond, substitution reactions (Directive influence of halogen in
monosubstituted compounds only.

Unit XI: Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers

Alcohols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, from alkenes, carbonyl compounds,
Grignard reagent, physical properties and chemical properties (of primary alcohols
only),esterification, reaction with (hydrogen halide, phosphorus trihalide Oxidation
(identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols mechanism of dehydration).
Phenols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation from haloarenes, benzene sulphonic acid,
diazonium salt, cumene, physical properties and chemical properties, acidic nature of
phenol, esterification, Electrophilic aromatic substitution (halogenations, nitration) Reimer-
Tiemann reaction, reaction with Zn dust, oxidation.
Eithers :Nomenclature, methods of preparation dehydration of alcohols, Williamson
synthesis, physical properties and chemical properties, formation of alcohols, Electrophilic
substitution ( halogenations, nitration, Friedel-Craft reaction.

Unit XII : Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids

Aldehydes and Ketones : Nomenclature nature of carbonyl group methods of preparation,
from alcohols (oxidation and dehydrogenation), ozonolysis of alkenes, hydration of alkynes,
preparation of ketones from acyl chlorides and nitriles, preparation of acetone by Friedel-
Craft acylation reaction, physical properties and chemical properties, nucleophillic addition
reaction with hydrogen cyanide, sodiumhydrogen sulphite, reaction with NH3 and NH2-G
compounds (Hydrazine, hydroxyl amine, semicarbazide, phenyl hydrazine, 2,4-dinitro
phenylhydrazine), alcohol, Grignard reagent, Clemmensen reaction, Wolff-Kishner reduction,
Fehling’s Test, Tollen’s Test, haloform reaction, Aldol condensation, Cannizzaro’s reaction,
special reaction of (formaldehyde with ammonia and acetone with concentrated sulphuric
acid), Electrophilic substitution reactions of aromatic aldehydes and ketones.
Carboxylic Acids : Nomenclature, acidic nature, methods of preparation, from primary
alcohols, aldehydes, anhydrides, esters, nitriles and Grignard reagent, preparation of benzoic
acid from toluene and benzanilide, physical properties, chemical properties, reaction with
(metals, alkalies, PCl3, PCl5, SOCl2, NH3), formation of anhydride, esterification, reduction,
decarboxylation, Hell-Volhard-Zelinsky reaction. Substitution reaction of benzoic acid
(nitration, bromination)

Unit XIII : Organic compounds containing Nitrogen

Amines : Nomenclature classification, structure, methods of preparation, reduction of
(nitrocompounds, nitriles, amides) amonolysis of alkyl halides, Hoffmann bromamide
degradation, Gabriel phthalamide synthesis. Physical properties and chemical proporties,
basic character of amines, alkylation, acylation, carbylamines reaction, identification of
primary, secondary and teritary amines (reaction with nitrous acid and arylsulphonyl
chloride). Electrophilic substitution reactions of aniline (nitration, sulphonation,
bromination). Cyanide and Isocyanides-will be mentioned at relevant places in context.

Unit XV: Polymers

Classification-Natural and synthetic methods of polymerization(addition and
condensation)co polymerization, some important polymers, natural and synthetic like
polythene, nylon, polyester, bakelite, rubber, Biodegradable and non-biodegradable

Unit XVI : Chemistry in Everyday life

Chemical in Medicines- Angesics, traqulizers antiseptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials,
antifungal, drugs, antibiotics, antacids, antihistamines.
Cleansing agents – Soap & detergents, cleansing action

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